Appendix 1: The Fundamentals of Time Travel in the “The Time Tourists” saga created by me!

After women, if there was one thing that puzzled man witless, it’s time. For thousands of years, man could feel time. Its effects and profound limitations. Measure it. Define the behavior in relativity. And yet, time truly eluded him. All of that changed in the 24th century, when Time was compared to an ocean in a very cold weather.

An excerpt from the Class 5 (in 2700 AD, in UCSA) Science Book on time travel: “Time is much more like Ice on ocean. Picture an unfortunate, handicapped Penguin, unfortunately stuck between the thick sheets of ice in the Arctic ocean after an unfortunate accident, as shown in the unfortunate 3D picture. No Penguin can swim in this thick Ice. But the Penguin can dig a tunnel, so to speak, to travel. To the dig the tunnel the Penguin can only use its beak.  From the figure, a tunnel in Path A is the worst choice for freedom and Path B is the best Choice.

Notice that Path A has one dimensional transport and path B has the potential of travelling in any direction. However an alternate Path C, 180 degrees to path B also exists.

Unfortunately for man, he has been choosing the path A, since the beginning of time. He just didn’t know how to dig in path B.  With advancements in technology, now man can take path B and swim in that Arctic Ocean of time, in any direction. The water in this ocean belongs to another dimension, and this water is just another form of ice- the time in this ocean has a multitude of crazy properties, which are quite essential for all the stability of the other dimensions.”

So let’s look at how time travel was possible. In 2781 AD, they made a tunnel- generally known as the Time-Tunnel, into this new dimension of time. In this dimension, time flows in both direction- thanks to the Time-Emit Pair, which makes travel in any direction at a speed greater than light. The medium in this dimension is also known as Hyper-Time in popular media.

But the problem with this Time-Tunnel was that it was one ended to the outer world (or Universe), which means, that if you entered the tunnel, you’d have the same exit point as the entrance, and come out of the tunnel at the same time. It had its own very peculiar scientific significance- let’s say, a man of 30, enters the Time Tunnel of 2781 AD. He spends 10 years in this Hyper-Time looking for an exit. He doesn’t find one, and he returns back to Earth through the same Time-Tunnel. In Earth it’d be still 2781 AD, but now the man would have aged 10 more years- and hence he’d be 40 years old, but the rest of his friends would be exactly the same, as he left them 10 years ago. However this results in a host of paradoxes, which we’ll take up as an advanced topic later.

The Time Tunnel of 2781 AD was practically useless (but scientifically priceless), till the Time Tunnel of 2785 AD was built by theUCSA.

Now things are getting interesting. A man entering through Time Tunnel of 2781 AD can come out of the Time Tunnel of 2785 AD. Hence now he can travel in future. The same holds good for a man entering 2785 AD, he can travel in time to past- to 2781 AD.

However there’s an important catch. The man entering the Time Tunnel of 2781 AD, actually “waited” for 4 years for the Time Tunnel of 2785 AD to be built, only then he could exit, into the world of 2785 AD. But, the time that we know has no meaning, in this Hyper-Time Dimension. So the time of 4 years that took to build the Time Tunnel 2785 AD in outside Universe, was spent as a mere 2 seconds in the Hyper-Time Dimension.

The contrast of time in the Hyper-Time, must now be slowly intoxicating you. On one hand, it ages you, while nobody else is aging. And on the other, the whole Universe has moved ahead and became years older, but you wouldn’t have aged more than a few seconds.

Now what about the naughty little man travelling from 2785 AD, coming to 2781 AD, and somehow manages to  prevent the building of the Time Tunnel of 2785 AD. This problem is classically known as The Grandfather Paradox. However, the apparent paradox is no more than an illusion created by the different timelines.

The Hyper-Time has many anomalies. One of its properties, which you already understood- travelling ahead in time, 4 years, in mere 2 seconds, is an anomaly of lesser significance. The other significant properties include maintaining the stability of the whole system- the Universe. It maintains the state of everything, in its tiny dimension. In other words, it has a vast memory of everything, every particle- its composition, its electrical, chemical, behavioral, every state is stored in this Hyper-Time. Even more significant, is the ability of the Hyper-time to restore the state of everything. Thus when the man from 2785 AD comes to 2781 AD, the Universe is restored back to it state in 2781 AD. The time from 2785 AD ceases to exist. And time (and the whole Universe) resumes from its previous state as in 2781 AD.

This leads to the theoretical “ghost” period, from 2781 AD to 2785 AD. This ghost period is meaningful to the time traveler from 2785 AD, but for the rest of the Universe in 2781 AD, the ghost period has not happened. This ghost period ran in timeline 1. But in timeline 2, the ghost period is yet to run. This leads to the famous side-effect of time travelling- “Rewriting History”.  The traveler knows in advance, what sequence of events would most likely happen in this ghost period. So he may take necessary steps to prevent or benefit or accelerate it, depending on his need. Theoretically this is a possibility- however practically this is yet to be affirmed.

Apart from the implications of ghost period, there are inherent difficulties and apparent paradoxes that need to be answered. The traveler from 2785 AD, in essence came out of thin air, in 2781 AD. If you were an observer in 2781 AD, and saw a man time-travel next to you, then he’d look like he came out of nowhere. But in reality- this time traveler has his existential declaration from 2785 AD, in the Timeline 1 before his time travel, and must therefore be defined again in 2781 AD, meaning, the particles that his body is made up of, the things he’s carrying, all need to be accounted for. This is a requirement straight from the law of conservation of mass and energy.

When the Time traveler travels back in time to 2781 AD, the Universe is sort of restored to its state in 2781 AD. All its mass and energy remains the same as in 2781 AD – except for the time traveler himself and his stuff. It may seem that the time traveler’s existence is from a future which no longer exists. But this too is a mirage. The timeline 1 existed, it ran. Time ticked from 2781 AD to 2785 AD. The time traveler existed there- and when he travelled to 2781 AD, he created a new timeline, called Timeline 2. All his stuff and himself is a product of Timeline 1, who are now in Timeline 2. Timeline 1 now ceases to exist.

The problem is similar argumentatively to a man traveling from Moon to Earth. Let’s assume that a consequence of his travel from the moon towards earth, the moon explodes into a ball of dust. The people of Earth may ask the traveler, how he could be in Earth when he’s from Moon and Moon no longer exists. The fact remains, that moon existed, and he travelled from there to Earth- and his existence abides the law of conservation of mass and energy and other known Scientific Laws.

However, the sudden increase in mass and energy of state of Universe in 2781 AD, by the presence of time traveler is not quite explained by the earlier explanation.  This remains an unsolved scientific mystery till 2785 AD. Most Scientists in 2785 AD believed that the Hyper-Time in essence has the property of restoring the Universe back to its original state, and while doing so, the Hyper-Time cheats or compensates for the presence of the Time Traveler, by not restoring equivalent amount in the Universe, to account for the time traveler and his stuff, either in energy or mass or both.

It was also proved that to restore the Universe to its older state it takes a lot of energy. So, how much this very capable and powerful Hyper-Time Dimension was able to cheat while restoring is a matter of debate…

So this means that a Star/Planet/Satellite/asteroid/mountain/tree/human may end up having lesser mass or energy, due to the presence of a time traveler in the system & the restoring of the Universe itself. Increased use of Hyper-Time to restore Universe may lead to an unstable system, eventually. That’s the reason why UCSA prevents the Time-Tourists from doing anything during their Time Travel- including the fart is sealed within the TimeBus and recycled back. However this theory is yet to be proved and no data was available to the Scientists to truly affirm as to how the extra mass and energy in the system is taken care of, by the Hyper-Time.

Thus a man travelling from 2785 AD to 2781 AD can theoretically change anything in 2781 AD, as the timeline he came from no longer exists, and he himself is now a part of a new timeline. Thus in effect, if he travelled back to 2781 AD and prevents the building of the Time Tunnel of 2785 AD, then he’d still be in the new timeline without any consequences for him, personally, and so he’ll not magically “poof” to oblivion as he “poof”ed into 2781 AD.  But the consequences for the timeline 2 is huge, as a new set of events are occurring as against what had happened in timeline 1.

The concept of Time Tourism:

A time traveler needs Time Tunnels to travel. And to build Time Tunnels, extremely complex and expensive equipment and expertise is required. Once such Time Tunnels are built, then specialized vehicles were built in 2785 AD to facilitate people travelling to 2781 AD. The vehicle, called the TimeBus, has a configurable field for changing the co-ordinates of time. However only 2 Time Tunnels exist in the world till 2785 AD, and hence people could travel from time 2781 AD to 2785 AD and vice versa. The UCSA with the help of FoS, had built foolproof Tourist TimeBuses to facilitate research groups, celebrities, rich & influential people to travel through time- just for heck of it and that, they can do it, without any consequences, and ending up with a lot of money. Extreme care was taken that the system of time travel did not lead to situations like the known paradoxes. This particularly pissed off a few research scientists as they couldn’t prove or disprove most the causal paradoxes involving time travel, despite the technology being available.

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